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How do I form plurals in German?


In German, forming plurals can be a bit tricky because there are several different rules depending on the gender, ending, and origin of the noun.


Here are some general guidelines for forming plurals in German:


1. Add "-e" to most nouns: For most German nouns, you can form the plural by adding "-e" to the end of the singular form. For example:

  • Haus (house) → Häuser (houses)

  • Buch (book) → Bücher (books)

  • Apfel (apple) → Äpfel (apples)


2. Add "-n" to some nouns: Some German nouns, particularly those with an "-e" or "-el" ending, form the plural by adding "-n". For example:

  • der Junge (the boy) → die Jungen (the boys)

  • das Zimmer (the room) → die Zimmer (the rooms)

  • der Apfel (the apple) → die Äpfel (the apples)


3. Add "-s" to some foreign nouns: Some German nouns that come from other languages form the plural by adding "-s" to the end of the singular form. For example:

  • das Baby (the baby) → die Babys (the babies)

  • das Hobby (the hobby) → die Hobbys (the hobbies)

  • das Taxi (the taxi) → die Taxis (the taxis)


4. Change the vowel in some nouns: Some German nouns change the vowel in the stem to form the plural. For example:

  • der Mann (the man) → die Männer (the men)

  • das Kind (the child) → die Kinder (the children)

  • das Haus (the house) → die Häuser (the houses)


5. Irregular plural forms: Some German nouns have irregular plural forms that need to be memorized. For example:

  • der Fisch (the fish) → die Fische (the fish)

  • das Messer (the knife) → die Messer (the knives)

  • das Jahr (the year) → die Jahre (the years)

These are just some general guidelines for forming plurals in German. It's important to remember that there are many exceptions and irregularities, so it's always a good idea to check a dictionary or grammar guide if you're unsure about the plural form of a specific noun.




Here are some examples of difficult German words and their plural forms:

  1. der Fisch (the fish) → die Fische (the fish)

  2. das Messer (the knife) → die Messer (the knives)

  3. das Jahr (the year) → die Jahre (the years)

  4. der Fuß (the foot) → die Füße (the feet)

  5. der Mann (the man) → die Männer (the men)

  6. das Kind (the child) → die Kinder (the children)

  7. die Maus (the mouse) → die Mäuse (the mice)

  8. die Gans (the goose) → die Gänse (the geese)

  9. das Tier (the animal) → die Tiere (the animals)

  10. der Schuh (the shoe) → die Schuhe (the shoes)


These words illustrate the different ways that plurals can be formed in German, such as adding an "-e", "-n", or "-s" ending, changing the vowel in the stem, or using an irregular form. It's important to remember that there are many exceptions and irregularities in German plurals, so it's always a good idea to consult a dictionary or grammar guide if you're unsure about the plural form of a specific word.


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